Sunday, 29 July 2007

West Australian Invertebrates

(Just a few of the) Invertebrates Found At or Near The Walla Walla College Marine Station (Rosario) Fidalgo Island, Anacortes, WA. For many more visit the website here

Aggregating sea cucumber
Alaska falsejingle
Apple anemone
Bent nosed clam
Bubble snail
Cup and saucer snail
Dunce cap limpet
Eccentric sand dollar
Feather duster worm
Flat porcelain crab
Pale creeping pedal sea cucumber
Ruffled scaleworm
Ubiquitous brittle star
Western white slipper clam
Wrinkled sea squirt

Sunday, 22 July 2007

Simpsons episode titles featuring the word "D'oh"

For more info see the Wikipedia article here

"D'oh-in' in the Wind" (season 10)
"Days of Wine and D'oh'ses" (season 11)
"C.E. D'oh" (season 14)
"We're on the Road to D'ohwhere" (season 17)

Thursday, 19 July 2007

Tuesday, 17 July 2007

Butterflies 3: Antonym butterflies

List created using indexes of butterfly names at the North American Butterfly Association here, and Museum Victoria here

Clouded Sulphur - Cloudless Sulphur
Large Bronze Azure - Small Bronze Azure
Southern Broken-dash - Northern Broken-dash
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail - Western Tiger Swallowtail
Sunrise Skipper - Moon-marked Skipper
Tropical Checkered-Skipper - Desert Checkered-Skipper
Common Streaky-Skipper - Scarce Streaky-Skipper
Four-spotted Skipperling - Many-spotted Skipperling
Dull Copper - Bright Copper
Bramble Hairstreak - False Bramble Hairstreak

Butterflies 2: Shakespearean butterflies

Lines of Shakespeare that refer to a butterfly, created using the Shakespeare search function at Rhymezone

butterfly: and when he caught it, he let it go - Coriolanus: I, iii

Yet your butterfly was a grub. this marcius is grown - Coriolanus: V, iv

There is differency between a grub and a butterfly; - Coriolanus: V, iv

Sunday, 15 July 2007

Punctuation butterflies

Butterfly species named for the punctuation-like markings on their wings.

The Comma
The Question Mark

Friday, 13 July 2007

Songs featuring Cowbells

This selection from a large list at the Cowbell Project website here

ACDC - Thunderstruck
Avril Lavigne - Complicated
B'52s - Love Shack
Bangles - Hazy Shade Of Winter
Beatles - Hard Days Night
Billy Idol - White Wedding
Blues Brothers Band- Gimme' Some Lovin'
Bon Jovi - It's my Life
Britney Spears - Hit Me Baby One More Time
Dee Lite - Groove is in the Heart
Duran Duran - Reflex
EMF - Unbelievable
Frank Sinatra - My Way
Hall and Oates - Private Eyes
Inxs - Wild Life
Jimi Hendrix - Fire
Joe Cocker - Leave Your Hat On
John Denver - Annie's Song
Lionel Ritchie - All Night Long
Madonna - Justify My Love
Midnight Oil - Beds Are Burning
Pet Shop Boys - Always On My Mind
Pink - I'm Coming Up
Police - Roxanne
Prince - You Got The Look
Queen - Bohemian Rhapsody
Rolling Stones - Satisfaction
Salt n Pepper - Push It
Shania Twain - That Don't Impress Me Much
Simon & Garfunkle - Sounds of Silence
Twisted Sister - We're Not Going to Take It
Warrant - Cherry Pie

Thursday, 12 July 2007

Library of Congress Subject Headings Weekly List

The Library of Congress publishes an alphabetically arranged weekly list of new and changed subject headings. Here is the first part (A - L) of the most recent Weekly List published June 27, 2007. Changes to existing headings are indicated by an asterisk. (A) indicates proposals that were approved before the editorial meeting and (C) indicates proposals submitted by cooperating libraries. To view the full list see the website here

(C) 150 Adventure stories, Korean [May Subd Geog] [sp2007002880]
450 UF Korean adventure stories
550 BT Korean fiction

(C) 151 Aleta, Manantial de la (Dominican Republic) [sp2007003445]
451 UF Aleta Sinkhole (Dominican Republic)
451 UF Manantial de la Aleta (Dominican Republic)
550 BT Sinkholes--Dominican Republic

(C) 150 Alpha shapes [sp2007001826]
550 BT Polytopes
550 BT Shapes

(C) 151 Alsea River Estuary (Or.) [sp2007002635]
550 BT Estuaries--Oregon

150 Animals--Effect of roads on [May Subd Geog] [sp2007004640]
550 BT Roads
360 SA subdivision Effect of roads on under individual animals and
groups of animals, e.g. Fishes--Effect of roads on

(C) 150 Anthriscus [May Subd Geog] [sp2006000193]
053 QK495.U48 (Botany)
450 UF Chervil (Anthriscus)
550 BT Umbelliferae

150 Anthriscus sylvestris [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003886]
053 QK495.U48 (Botany)
450 UF Anthriscus silvestris
450 UF Bur chervil
450 UF Cow parsley
450 UF Keck
450 UF Parsley, Cow
450 UF Wild chervil
550 BT Anthriscus

(A) 100 Arcangeli family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003943]

150 Architecture [May Subd Geog] [sp 85006611 ]
* 450 UF Architecture, Western (Western countries)
* 450 UF Western architecture (Western countries)

(C) 150 Architecture, European [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007002866]
450 UF European architecture

(C) 150 Architecture, Talieng [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003449]
450 UF Talieng architecture

150 Art [May Subd Geog] [sp 85007461 ]
* 450 UF Art, Western CANCEL
* 450 UF Art, Western (Western countries)
* 450 UF Western art CANCEL
* 450 UF Western art (Western countries)

150 Art, Galician [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003944]
450 UF Galician art

151 Badger State Trail (Wis.) [sp2007004024]
550 BT Rail-trails--Wisconsin

(C) 151 Barkley Dam (Ky.) [sp2007002596]
550 BT Dams--Kentucky

110 Barrett Building (Cheyenne, Wyo.) [sp2007003935]
550 BT Public buildings--Wyoming

151 Bassett Creek (Md.) [sp2007004020]
550 BT Rivers--Maryland

151 Beacon Hill North Reservoir (Seattle, Wash.) [sp2007004026]
667 This heading is not valid for use as a geographic
451 UF Beacon North Reservoir (Seattle, Wash.)
550 BT Reservoirs--Washington (State)

151 Beacon Hill North Reservoir Dam (Seattle, Wash.) [sp2007004030]
667 This heading is not valid for use as a geographic
451 UF Beacon Hill Number Reservoir Dam (Seattle, Wash.)
550 BT Dams--Washington (State)

150 Beatrice (Fictitious character : Dante) [Not Subd Geog]

150 Beatrice (Name) [sp2007004646]
450 UF Bea (Name)
450 UF Beatrijs (Name)
450 UF Beatris (Name)
450 UF Beatrix (Name)
450 UF Beatriz (Name)
450 UF Betrys (Name)
450 UF Peakalika (Name)
550 BT Names, Personal

150 Beatrice (Name) in literature [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007004649]

(C) 151 Becher Point Wetlands (W.A.) [sp2007000949]
451 UF Becher Wetlands (W.A.)
550 BT Wetlands--Australia

150 Bolivian Americans [May Subd Geog] [sp2007004005]
053 E184.B674
450 UF Bolivian Americans--United States
550 BT Bolivians--United States
550 BT Ethnology--United States

150 Bolivians--United States [sp2007004035]

(A) 100 Borgmeier family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007002318]
400 UF Borgmeyer family

150 Bronchial provocation tests [May Subd Geog] [sp 85017078 ]
* 450 UF Bronchial allergen challenge
* 450 UF Endobranchial allergen challenge
* 550 BT Pulmonary function tests

100 Buras family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003889]

110 Casa de Jeronimo Pinelo (Seville, Spain) [sp2007003954]
410 UF Casa de los Pinelo (Seville, Spain)
410 UF Casa de Pinelo (Seville, Spain)
410 UF Jeronimo Pinelo, Casa de (Seville, Spain)
410 UF Pinelo House (Seville, Spain)
550 BT Dwellings--Spain

(C) 110 Casa Isella (Varese, Italy) [sp2007002582]
410 UF Isella House (Varese, Italy)
550 BT Dwellings--Italy
550 BT Exhibition buildings--Italy

(C) 150 Ceviche [sp2007003424]
450 UF Cebiche
450 UF Seviche
550 BT Cookery (Fish)

(C) 150 Charlotte (Fictitious character : Levert) [Not Subd Geog]

(C) 150 Chinaski, Henry (Fictitious character) [Not Subd Geog]
450 UF Chinaski, Hank (Fictitious character)
450 UF Hank Chinaski (Fictitious character)
450 UF Henry Chinaski (Fictitious character)

(A) 100 Choice family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003882]
400 UF Choyce family

* 150 Choruses, Secular (Men's voices, 4 parts) with piano and reed organ
150 Choruses, Secular (Men's voices, 4 parts) with keyboard ensemble
[May Subd Geog] [sp 85024877 ]
053 M1539
450 UF Choruses, Secular (Men's voices, 4 parts) with piano and reed

150 Church work with youth with social disabilities [May Subd Geog]
550 BT Youth with social disabilities

150 Church work with youth with social disabilities--Baptists,
[Catholic Church, etc.] [sp2007003869]

(C) 110 Clifford Davis and Ordell Horton Federal Building (Memphis, Tenn.)
410 UF Clifford Davis Federal Building (Memphis, Tenn.)
410 UF Davis and Horton Federal Building (Memphis, Tenn.)
550 BT Public buildings--Tennessee

150 Coarse-haired pocket mice [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003996]
053 QL737.R66 (Zoology)
450 UF Burtognathus
450 UF Chaetodipus
450 UF Hispid pocket mice
550 BT Heteromyidae
550 BT Pocket mice

(C) 150 Compton, Elizabeth Hartleigh (Fictitious character)
[Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003824]
450 UF Elizabeth Hartleigh Compton (Fictitious character)
450 UF Lady Elizabeth Hartleigh Compton (Fictitious character)

150 Conceptual art [May Subd Geog] [sp 85029624 ]
* 053 NX600.C6 (The arts) CANCEL
* 053 N6494.C63 (Visual arts) CANCEL
* 550 BT Art, Modern--21st century

(C) 150 Concert television programs [May Subd Geog] [sp2007002594]
450 UF Television concerts
550 BT Television programs

(C) 151 Conestoga River Water Trail (Pa.) [sp2007003579]
550 BT Water trails--Pennsylvania

(A) 150 Cornish Americans [May Subd Geog] [sp2007004033]
053 E184.C6
450 UF Cornish Americans--United States
550 BT Cornish--United States
550 BT Ethnology--United States

150 Couplets, Persian [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003880]
450 UF Persian couplets
550 BT Persian poetry

(C) 151 Crastoeiro Site (Mondim de Basto, Portugal) [sp2007003518]
667 This heading is not valid for use as a geographic
451 UF Alto do Muro Site (Mondim de Basto, Portugal)
551 BT Portugal--Antiquities

* 150 Cruise missiles [May Subd Geog] ADD GEOG [sp 85034367 ]

150 Death--Proof and certification (Islamic law) [May Subd Geog]
053 KBP1864
550 BT Islamic law

(C) 150 Deecee (Fictitious character : Jolin) [Not Subd Geog]
* 450 UF Binoo (Fictitious character : Jolin)

(C) 151 Delaware River Water Trail [sp2007003582]
550 BT Water trails--United States

100 Denes family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003890]
400 UF Denesse family
400 UF Dennes family
500 RT Dennis family

100 Dennis family [Not Subd Geog] [sp 85036834 ]
* 500 RT Denes family

(C) 100 Desbosch, Barons of [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007002882]
400 UF Barons of Desbosch
550 BT Nobility--Spain

(C) 150 Desert pocket mouse [May Subd Geog] [sp2004004963]
* 550 BT Coarse-haired pocket mice
* 550 BT Pocket mice CANCEL

(C) 150 Disappointment--Religious aspects--Baptists, [Catholic Church,
etc.] [sp2007003436]

(C) 151 Drift Creek (Drift Creek Wilderness-Alsea River Estuary, Or.)
550 BT Rivers--Oregon

(C) 151 Drift Creek Watershed (Drift Creek Wilderness-Alsea River Estuary,
Or.) [sp2007002646]
550 BT Watersheds--Oregon

(C) 151 Drift Creek Wilderness (Or.) [sp2007002647]
550 BT National parks and reserves--Oregon
550 BT Wilderness areas--Oregon

(C) 150 Dulaney, McLeod (Fictitious character) [Not Subd Geog]
450 UF McLeod Dulaney (Fictitious character)
450 UF Professor McLeod Delaney (Fictitious character)

(C) 110 Durlston Castle (England) [sp2007000938]
410 UF Durlston Head Castle (England)
550 BT Castles--England
550 BT Follies (Architecture)--England

(C) 110 Dymock's Building (Bo'ness, Scotland) [sp2007003423]
550 BT Dwellings--Scotland

(C) 150 End-to-end delay (Computer networks) [May Subd Geog]
450 UF Delay, End-to-end (Computer networks)
550 BT Computer networks

(C) 150 Ethnocentrism in art [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007002761]

150 Exiles' writings, Catalan [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003987]
450 UF Catalan exiles' writings
550 BT Catalan literature

150 Express highways--North Carolina [sp2007004014]

150 Express highways--South Carolina [sp2007004015]

(C) 150 Film novelizations [May Subd Geog] [sp 96004845 ]
* 450 UF Movie novels

(C) 150 Fishes--Effect of roads on [May Subd Geog] [sp2007002617]
681 Example under Animals--Effect of roads on

150 Fonte Gaia (Siena, Italy) [sp2007003936]
450 UF Gaia Fountain (Siena, Italy)
550 BT Fountains--Italy

150 Gall wasps [May Subd Geog] [sp 85052835 ]
* 450 UF Cynipids
* 450 UF Gallwasps
* 450 UF Wasps, Gall CANCEL
* 550 BT Wasps

(C) 150 Gas War, Bolivia, 2003 [sp2007003496]
450 UF Black October, Bolivia, 2003
450 UF Bolivian Gas War, Bolivia, 2003
551 BT Bolivia--History--1982-
550 BT Demonstrations--Bolivia

(A) 100 Ginnold family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007004034]

* 150 Goats, Fossil CANCEL
150 Capra, Fossil [May Subd Geog] [sp 85055498 ]
053 QE882.U3
550 BT Bovidae, Fossil

(C) 150 Gorges--Utah [sp2007002599]

(C) 151 Great Fish River Estuary (South Africa) [sp2007002616]
451 UF Great Fish Estuary (South Africa)
550 BT Estuaries--South Africa

(C) 150 Green Arrow (Fictitious character) [Not Subd Geog]
450 UF Oliver Queen (Fictitious character)
450 UF Queen, Oliver (Fictitious character)

(C) 150 Green porcelain crab [May Subd Geog] [sp2007002579]
053 QL444.M33 (Zoology)
450 UF Petrolisthes armatus
550 BT Petrolisthes

(C) 150 Greenhouse gas mitigation--Law and legislation [May Subd Geog]
550 BT Environmental law

(C) 151 Hambach 512 Site (Niederzier, Germany) [sp2007002699]
667 This heading is not valid for use as a geographic
451 UF HA 512 Site (Niederzier, Germany)
551 BT Germany--Antiquities

(C) 151 Hambach 516 Site (Niederzier, Germany) [sp2007002705]
667 This heading is not valid for use as a geographic
451 UF HA 516 Site (Niederzier, Germany)
551 BT Germany--Antiquities

(C) 150 Highlander sport utility vehicle [Not Subd Geog]
450 UF Toyota Highlander sport utility vehicle
550 BT Sport utility vehicles
550 BT Toyota trucks

100 Hingle family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003888]

(C) 150 Historical fiction, Slovenian [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003825]
450 UF Slovenian historical fiction
550 BT Slovenian fiction

(C) 110 House of the Silver Wedding (Pompeii) [sp2007002583]
410 UF Casa delle Nozze d'argento (Pompeii)
410 UF Nozze d'Argento, Casa delle (Pompeii)
410 UF Silver Wedding, House of the (Pompeii)
550 BT Dwellings--Italy
551 BT Italy--Antiquities

150 Imino sugars [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003871]
053 QP702.I45
450 UF Iminosugars
550 BT Imino compounds
550 BT Sugars

150 Inhaca (Afro-Brazilian deity) [Not Subd Geog] [sp
89000924 ]
* 550 BT Gods, Afro-Brazilian

* 151 Inland Empire CANCEL
151 Inland Empire (Pacific Northwest) [sp 90006012 ]
680 Here are entered works on the area of the northwestern United
States between the Cascade Range and Rocky Mountains, comprising
eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, northern Idaho, and
extreme western Montana.
451 UF Empire, Inland (Pacific Northwest)
451 UF Inland Northwest
451 UF Inland Pacific Northwest
451 UF Inland West (U.S.)
451 UF Northwest, Inland
451 UF Pacific Northwest, Inland
451 UF West, Inland (U.S.)

(C) 151 Interstate 26 [sp2007002703]
451 UF I-26
451 UF Interstate Highway 26
550 BT Express highways--North Carolina
550 BT Express highways--South Carolina
550 BT Express highways--Tennessee

(C) 151 Jackson-Everson Site (N.Y.) [sp2007003409]
551 BT New York (State)--Antiquities

(A) 100 Ja®brzykowski family [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003817]

(C) 151 Jordan Narrows (Utah) [sp2007002598]
550 BT Gorges--Utah

(C) 151 Kern Mountains (Nev. and Utah) [sp2007002785]
550 BT Mountains--Nevada
550 BT Mountains--Utah

(C) 151 Kiski-Conemaugh River Water Trail (Pa.) [sp2007003362]
550 BT Water trails--Pennsylvania

151 Kramer Forst (Germany) [sp2007003999]
451 UF Kramer Forest Regional Park (Germany)
451 UF Kramer Forst Regional Park (Germany)
550 BT Forest reserves--Germany
550 BT Parks--Germany

150 Kull (The Arabic word) [sp2007003980]
550 BT Arabic language--Etymology

150 Kyo pottery [May Subd Geog] [sp 85073563 ]
* 450 UF Porcelain, Kyo CANCEL
* 450 UF Pottery, Kyo

(C) 150 Latkes [May Subd Geog] [sp2007001521]
450 UF Latkas
450 UF Potato latkes
550 BT Potato pancakes

(C) 150 Leptopilina [May Subd Geog] [sp2006000321]
053 QL568.C9 (Zoology)
550 BT Gall wasps

(C) 150 Leptopilina boulardi [May Subd Geog] [sp2006000320]
053 QL568.C9 (Zoology)
450 UF Charips mahensis
450 UF Cothonaspis boulardi
550 BT Leptopilina

(C) 150 Lexus RX sport utility vehicle [Not Subd Geog] [sp2007003490]
450 UF Lexus RX 300 sport utility vehicle
450 UF Lexus RX 330 sport utility vehicle
450 UF RX 300 sport utility vehicle
450 UF RX 330 sport utility vehicle
550 BT Lexus automobile
550 BT Sport utility vehicles

150 Literature [Not Subd Geog] [sp 85077507 ]
* 450 UF Western literature CANCEL
* 450 UF Western literature (Western countries)

(C) 151 Lower Susquehanna River Water Trail (Pa.) [sp2007003576]
451 UF Lower Susquehanna River Trail (Pa.)
451 UF Susquehanna River Water Trail--Lower Section (Pa.)
550 BT Water trails--Pennsylvania

(C) 150 Lullabies, Hebrew [May Subd Geog] [sp2007003431]
450 UF Hebrew lullabies

Tuesday, 10 July 2007

Hemingway's cats

Names of some of the 60 cats residing at the Hemingway Home and Museum

Pauline (Mama)
Cat Nap
Emily Dickinson
Simone De Beauvoir
Nikki Adams
Spencer Tracy
Audrey Hepburn
Pablo Picasso
Joan Crawford
Trevor Howard
Sofia Loren
Charley Chaplin

Monday, 9 July 2007

Waterfall terminology

A cascade of words from the World Waterfall Database here

A term used to describe the relative ease or difficulty in reaching a waterfall.

Angle of Repose
The steepest slope in which a particular sediment will lie motionless without falling or sliding.

A flat-floored, often vertically walled channel of an intermittent stream typical of semiarid climates. Commonly observed in the southwestern United States. Synonymous with Wadi and Wash.

A fine-grained igneous (volcanic) rock, dominated by dark-colored minerals, consisting of plagioclase feldspars (over 50 percent) and ferro-magnesian silicates. Basalts and andesites represent about 98 percent of all extrusive rocks on earth. Commonly seen in regions synonymous with volcanic activity (Iceland, New Zealand, Northwestern North America, Japan).

The bottom of a waterfall formation.

The solid rock substrate beneath which lies beneath more permeable materials (such as soil, gravel or water). Often the term is used to describe the rock formation which a waterfall descends over.

A form of a waterfall. A waterfall in a Block form occurs over a wide breadth of the stream. The waterfall must be wider than it is tall. A waterfall with this form does not have to be a solid sheet of water across it's entire width.

Boulder Garden
A term used to describe a steep section of a stream, where the water cascades over, under, and between large boulders which line the riverbed.

The top of a waterfall. Also referred to as the Crest.

To clear a path through thick vegetation. More commonly, this term is used to describe any off-trail, or cross country travel, which involves navigating heavily forested ground, in which a large, sharp blade (ex. machete) would aid in travel.

A steep sided and flat topped hill formed by erosion of flat laying strata where remnants of a resistant layer protect the softer rocks underneath. Also applied to small, usually dormant or extinct volcanoes known as Cinder Cones, which usually stand less than 1000 feet above the outlying plain.

A deep, narrow, steep-sided (often vertical-walled) valley, usually with a watercourse flowing through it.

An overlying rock layer that is more resistant to weathering than formations located beneath it. Waterfalls dropping over cap rock formations tend to be classified as a Plunge, Block or Curtain form.

A form of a waterfall. A waterfall of a Cascade form descends over, gradually sloping rocks, a series of small steps in quick succession, or a rugged sloping surface of some kind. Cascades can be both gradual and steep.

A terms used to describe vertical waterfalls which possess a large volume of water. Often used synonymously with "Plunge".

A steep-walled hollow, shaped like a half-bowl or amphitheater, formed by glaciation and frost wedging. Cirques are found in mountainous regions populated with glaciers, or which have had a history of being glaciated. The term Headwall can often be used interchangeably with Cirque, but not vice versa.

Detrital sedimentary rock made up of compressed, poorly sorted dust, sand, pebbles and small stones. Conglomerate rock looks like sandstone with large pebbles and small stones infused throughout.

Contour Lines
A line on a topographic map representing a certain elevation at a certain location. Space between two contour lines represents a change in elevation by the interval the contour lines represent.

Contours represent the vertical, or third, dimension on a topographic map. They show the shape and size of physical features such as mountains, hills and valleys.

See "Brink".

A term used to describe the movement of water in a stream.

A form of a waterfall. Curtain waterfalls occur along a wide breadth of stream where the falls must be taller than it is wide.

The amount of water to pass a given point on a stream, per unit of time. Usually expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters of water per second.

Movement of earthen material from one place to another on earth's surface. Natural causes of erosion include gravity, water movement, glaciation, and wind.

An often vertical, or near vertical, slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge, which often stretches for several miles. Usually formed by erosion.

The vertical surface of a cliff. In this case, the rock surface where the water is falling. Also known as Cliff Face.

A form of a waterfall. Waterfalls of a Fan form occur when the breadth of the water in the waterfall increases during it's decent, causing the base of the falls to appear much wider than the top of the falls.

A deep, steep-walled, U-shaped valley formed by glaciation, which has been flooded by seawater. Typically, waterfalls in this formation drop from hanging valleys. Fjords are commonly found in New Zealand, Canada, southern Argentina and Norway.

A large mass of ice which persists throughout the year, and moves slowly downslope in a liquid manor by it's own weight. Glaciers are formed in areas where the winter snow doesn't have a chance to melt, and consecutive snowfalls accumulate and compress into ice.

A coarse-grained regional metamorphic rock that shows compositional banding and parallel alignment of minerals.

A deep, usually narrow ravine, or canyon, often with vertical walls, usually with a watercourse running through it.

The slope of stream bed or land surface within a given distance. Expressed in percentage, feet per mile, meters per kilometer, or in degrees.

A coarse-grained, intrusive igneous (volcanic) rock composed of quartz, orthoclase feldspar, sodic plagioclase feldspar, and micas. Waterfalls flowing over granitic bedrock are often characterized by water sculpture and polishing.

A variety of sandstone generally characterized by hardness, dark color, and angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments set in a matrix of clay-sized particles. Also known as Lithic Sandstone.

A depression indicated on a topographic map by short dashes, which point towards the center of the depression. Often used to mark rock quarries or volcanic craters.

Hanging Valley
A valley most often formed as a result of glaciation, where a large glacier erodes a valley, at a perpendicular angle to the hanging valley, to a deeper extent. The result is that of a small valley intersecting a larger valley at an elevation noticeably above the bottom of the larger valley. Hanging valleys can be, but are not always, eroded by a glacier.

The measurement of a waterfall from it's brink to it's base. Often not an exact science, as placing the brink and base of a waterfall is sometimes ambiguous and arbitrary.

A form of a waterfall. Horsetail waterfalls are characterized by the constant or semi-constant contact the water keeps with the bedrock as it falls. Horsetail waterfalls can be almost vertical, as well as very gradual.

Igneous Rock
An aggregate of interlocking silicate minerals formed by cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rocks are formed by volcanic processes.

Breaks in rock mass with no relative movement of rock on opposite sides of the break.

Karst Topography
Irregular topography characterized by sink holes, caves, streamless valleys, and underground streams; all developed by the actions of surface and underground water in soluble rocks, such as limestone or soapstone.

A distinct point of sudden or abrupt steepening in the gradient of a streambed, often indicating the presence of a waterfall.

Sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral Calcite (CaCO3), formed by either organic or inorganic processes. Most limestones have clastic texture, but nonclastic, particularly crystalline, textures are common.

Metamorphic rock of granular texture, with no rock cleavage, and composed of Calcite (Marble), Dolomite, or both.

Metamorphic Rock
Any type of rock which changes in texture or composition, after it's original formation, as a result of extreme heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids.

Meters of Head
A term used by the hydropower industry to describe the elevation change between two points on a watercourse, often above and below a large waterfall, which would result in the production of a given amount of electricity. Measurements of Meters of Head are often not a true representation of the actual height of a waterfall, but are commonly, and incorrectly used as such.

The direction a waterfall faces, or the direction in which a watercourse flows over a waterfall.

A typically extensive land area, having a relatively level surface raised sharply above adjacent land on at least one side.

A form of a waterfall. The classic and overly cliched waterfall form, where the water drops vertically, losing most, or all contact with the rock face. This waterfall form has also been referred to as a "Cataract" and a "Vertical" form waterfall.

Plunge Pool
A pool at the base of a waterfall formed by hydraulic erosion.

A form of a waterfall. Punchbowl waterfalls, coined from the famous Punch Bowl Falls in Oregon, occur where the stream is constricted to a narrow breadth and is forcefully shot outward and downward into a large pool.

Metamorphic rock commonly formed by metamorphism of sandstone and composed of quartz. No rock cleavage. Quartzite breaks through sand grains in contrast to sandstone, which breaks around sand grains.

A section of a stream where the current has a moderate velocity, the surface is broken by extruding rocks and debris, producing frothy "whitewater", and the gradient of the stream remains shallow.

The horizontal distance in which the elevation change of a waterfall takes place. Also know as Runout.

Detrital sedimentary rock formed by cementation of individual grains of sand size and commonly composed of mineral quartz.

Metamorphic rock dominated by fibrous or platy minerals. Schist has a schistose plain of cleavage, and is product of regional metamorphism.

see Talus.

Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed from accumulations of sediment, which may consist of rock fragments of various sizes, remains or products of animals or plants, products of chemical action or of evaporation, or any mixture of these. Stratification is the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks, which cover about 75 percent of earth's land area.

A form of a waterfall. Segmented waterfalls occur where the stream is broken into two or more channels before descending over the cliff, causing multiple falls to occur side by side.

Fine-grained, detrital sedimentary rock made up of silt and clay sized particles. Contains clay minerals as well as particles of quartz, feldspar, calcite, dolomite, and other minerals. Shale has a parallel plain of cleavage.

A depression in the surface of the earth caused by the collapse of the roof of a cave or cavern.

Fine-grained metamorphic rock with well-developed slaty cleavage. Formed by low-grade regional metamorphism of shale.

A form of a waterfall. Similar to a cascade, a Slide type waterfall descends a smooth, gradual bedrock surface. Slide waterfalls maintain constant contact with the bedrock, and are often seen in areas where granitic rocks are common.

A feature where the water table intersects the land surface and water flows from underground at a more or less continuous rate.

A constantly moving body of water, confined to the lowest possible depression in the earth's surface. The term Stream on this site refers to any size watercourse. Synonymous with Brook, Creek and River.

A slope consisting of rocks and boulders which have cleaved off of an adjacent cliff face. Talus is often found at the bottom of a waterfall. The term "talus" is also widely used to describe rock debris itself. Synonymous with Scree.

A form of a waterfall. Tiered waterfalls are characterized by multiple distinct drops in relatively close succession to one another. Whether or not a waterfall with two visible drops counts as a tiered waterfall is up to the beholder.

Topographic Map
A schematic drawing representing landforms indicated by conventionalized symbols, such as contours and hachures. Often referred to as a Topo Map. See also: Contour Line, Contours, and Hachures.

A terrestrial deposit of limestone formed in caves and around hot springs where cooling, carbonate-saturated groundwater is exposed to the air.

A smaller stream which feeds into a larger stream. The size of the smaller stream is relative to that of the larger stream (the smaller stream is always the tributary).

An elongated depression of the earth's surface, usually between ranges of hills or mountains. Also, an area drained by a stream or river and their tributaries.

Also known as a Drainage Basin. Area from which a given stream and its tributaries receive water.

The width of a waterfall formation, sometimes measured at the brink, sometimes taken as an average width of the waterfall.

Friday, 6 July 2007

Weather lore and proverbs

This list compiled by David Phillips, Senior Climatologist at Environment Canada. From the website here

The moon and the weather may change together,
But a change of the moon, will not change the weather.

A ring around the sun or moon, means rain or snow coming soon.

When grass is dry at morning light
Look for rain before the night.

Dew on the grass, rain won't come to pass.

Sea gull, sea gull, sit on the sand,
It's never good weather while you're on the land.

When sea-gulls fly to land, a storm is at hand.

Rain before seven, fine before eleven.
Evening red and morning grey, two sure signs of one fine day.

The sudden storm lasts not three hours
The sharper the blast, the sooner 'tis past.

The higher the clouds the better the weather.

Cold is the night when the stars shine bright.

Sound travelling far and wide, a stormy day betide.

When the forest murmurs and the mountain roars,
Then close your windows and shut your doors.

When leaves show their undersides, be very sure that rain betides.

Chimney smoke descends, our nice weather ends.

When the night goes to bed with a fever, it will awake with a wet head.

When stars shine clear and bright,
We will have a very cold night.

When the ditch and pond offend the nose,
Then look out for rain and stormy blows.

Three days rain will empty any sky.

The farther the sight, the nearer the rain.

Rain long foretold, long last,
Short notice, soon will pass.

The sharper the blast, the sooner 'tis past.

If bees stay at home, rain will soon come,
If they flay away, fine will be the day.

The first and last frosts are the worst.

When clouds look like black smoke a wise man will put on his cloak.

A rainbow afternoon,
Good weather coming soon.

A rainbow in the morning, is the shepherd's warning
A rainbow at night is the shepherd's delight.

When the chairs squeak, it's of rain they speak.

Catchy drawer and sticky door,
Coming rain will pour and pour.

The winds of the daytime wrestle and fight,
Longer and stronger than those of the night.

Dust rising in dry weather is a sign of approaching change.

Sun sets Friday clear as bell,
Rain on Monday sure as hell.

No weather's ill if the wind be still.

The squeak of the snow will the temperature show.

When smoke hovers close to the ground, there will be a weather change.

When down the chimney falls the soot
Mud will soon be underfoot.

When the sun shines while raining,
it will rain the same time again tomorrow.

When the wind blows from the west, fish bite best.
When it blows from the east, fish bite least.

If salt is sticky,
And gains in weight;
It will rain
Before too late.

Red sky at night, sailor's delight;
Red sky in morning, sailor take warning.

When clouds appear like rocks and towers,
The Earth's refreshed by frequent showers.

When the wind is in the east, 'tis neither good for man nor beast.

The more cloud types present, the greater the chance of rain or snow.